“In 2018, I started working with Paul Kinney and Kinney Multisport after several years of injuries and performance plateauing. The journey with Paul and Illona has been nothing short of rewarding in so many different ways. In metrics, I have already set a few PR’s in runs and swims and overall triathlons. The improvement also comes with more fun in training, better balance in work/life/train, and (knock knock) less or almost no injuries!! I attribute this not only to the personalized training program that keeps things interesting and progressing but more importantly to the way Paul and I communicate.

Using primarily TrainingPeaks, we comment before/after almost each training session. Paul is quick to provide a quality and timely advice and even adjust the workout on the fly if necessary. Essentially, nothing is a problem, quite the opposite! This results in almost no stress in training for me and likely better performance as a result.

 Paul and Ilona work as a team covering the entire spectrum of performance improvement: training, recovery, nutrition, stress, sleep. They are fun to work with and I would highly recommend them to any advanced or beginner athlete!”

— Vojta Borovian, Livermore, CA



We are implementing INSCYD developed by leading European physiologists and endurance coaches. It utilizes more than 4 decades of research and scientific data about how single subdomains of the energy metabolism in the muscle are controlled. Leveraging this data and results from techniques such as gas exchange analysis, magnetic spectroscopy and muscle biopsies the scientific findings have been translated into viable mathematical algorithms. These algorithms enable us to accurately develop a performance profile for each athlete and track changes in fitness over time.


Why INSCYD Analysis over Traditional Lactate Testing?


Your questions - our answers

  • Are you a long course triathlete or endurance cyclist/runner with a low VO2Max that limits your speed?

  • Is your body’s ability to metabolize its fat stores limiting your performance during long workouts or races?

  • Are you more suited to more intense, shorter races due to a high anaerobic capacity?

  • Our software combined with our knowledge and analysis will provide these answers…and more.

Traditional lactate testing

In traditional lactate testing, a stepped test in completed with lactate samples being drawn at predetermined time increments. The increase in exercise intensity elicits a response from the working muscles, which produce more lactate. By accurately measuring the lactate levels at each intensity we can plot the buildup of lactate in the blood stream and determine ideal heart rate and/or power training zones. This does allow for tracking improvements from one test to the next, but this is where the traditional lactate testing is limited



What INSCYD does is takes this many steps further. Utilizing either a series of Critical Power Tests OR Lactate Sampling, not only can ideal training zones be developed via the software, but we can also determine the athlete’s VO2 Max (Aerobic Capacity), VLa Max (Anaerobic Capacity), Anaerobic Threshold (Maximal Steady State Power/Pace), FatMax (Maximal Fat Combustion) & CarbMax (Maximal Carbohydrate Combustion). Simply put, our software allows for a complete metabolic profile of the athlete which will instantly allow us to determine each individual’s strengths and weaknesses AND exactly how to address those to maximize performance gains.

Get more out of your testing.

Lactate Testing

(Running, cycling, swimming, rowing or any other endurance sport)

We now understand the complete underlying physiology of you, the athlete and provide you with a holistic performance profile of any athlete, in any sportLactate is associated with each of the two energy systems. It is produced by the anaerobic system and used as a fuel for the aerobic system. 

The goal of the many hours of training is to optimize the two energy systems. When one knows how muscles react during exercise and how the aerobic and anaerobic capacity adapt to training, we will know what and how to train. This increases training efficiency while decreasing the risk of over-training and injuries.

  • Monitoring VLamax as a metric in your supports helps understanding how and why you perform in a certain way.

  • Understanding lactate metabolism helps us to make your individual interval training programs even more effective and efficient.

  • Understanding lactate metabolism we also understand performance in races.


  • $299 for single testing/analysis

Critical Power or Lactate Testing - what you get: 

  • We obtain maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) - even without the need for an all out test.

  • We assess anaerobic capacity (VLamax).

  • We understand and visualize the origin of your anaerobic threshold.

  • We get aerobic and anaerobic energy contribution for any discipline you are training for.

  • We calculate FatMax and total fat & carbohydrate combustion.

  • We evaluate efficiency (running, swimming, etc.) and understand how it effects your performance.

Just power isn't good enough.

Critical Power Testing - Anytime and Anywhere

(Cycling only)

We build your precise performance profile based on physiological data.

Basing a training program on power alone is a starting point but ultimately not enough. Power output might be the single most important metric of performance. However, there is much more to physical ability than just this; efficiency, fat combustion, aerobic and anaerobic energy supply, carbohydrate sparing, and recovery are just a few examples of crucial training metrics

VLamax is highly adaptive to training and detraining. It may well account for a majority of changes in endurance performance throughout a season. therefore, tracking Vlamax and adjusting accordinly is imperative, we now can.

To create a complete performance profile, we have you do a minimum of three critical power tests. These incremental tests are widely used and excepted within athletes to determine glycolytic and aerobic capacity. That enables us to track and monitor development of each capacity seperatly.


  • $299 for single testing/analysis


VLamax – Glyoclytic Power – A Key Metric in Endurance Performance


20% of the difference in performance between amateurs (Cat 1-2 cyclists or top age-group triathletes) and professionals can be explained by VO2max. The main distinction between these two categories is attributed to the difference in VLamax (Anaerobic Capacity), accounting for 75%.  

Glycolytic power – or VLamax – has proven a highly important metric in endurance sports over the past decade. In the highest ranks of sports, such as swimming and cycling, the integration of VLamax as a metric has helped to understand athletic performance.

A high VLamax allows for high performance in short events such as sprinting. On the other hand, high VLamax causes higher glycolytic flux rate at sub-maximum intensities. This leads to high carbohydrate combustion, slower recovery from lactate accumulation, lower energetic contribution from fatty acids and lower performance at anaerobic threshold.

Aerobic & Glycolytic Power

The maximum aerobic power is commonly measured as VO2max – the maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Why is VO2max important? For each milliliter of oxygen processed in the aerobic metabolism, energy is produced.

In the glycolytic metabolism (glycolysis) lactate (or pyruvate) is produced out of glucose. This anaerobic process (no oxygen is involved) also produces energy. The amount of energy produced per piece of glucose is much less compared to the aerobic metabolism. However, this type of energy is produced at a much faster rate. Therefore, glycolysis is much more important for shorter, high intensity efforts. For such short efforts, a high energy production in a short time is needed. As the amount of energy produced is proportional to the amount of lactate or pyruvate produced, VLamax is a feasible way to measure glycolytic performance. VLamax stands for max production of Lactate.

VLamax hasn’t been widely measured until now. Historically, very few, but highly successful coaches and sport scientists have used it. The reason for this? VLamax wasn’t easily accessible...yet.

The role of VLamax in endurance performance

Glycolysis is not only important for sprinters, but has a tremendous effect on endurance performance. Glycolysis is the only way to utilize carbohydrates as a fuel during exercise. High glycolytic rates, enable high rates of utilizations of carbohydrates as a fuel. On the other hand, a high utilization of carbohydrates as fuel, reduces the need for fatty acids as a fuel- thus lowering fat metabolism. Furthermore, the maximum glycolytic power – or VLamax – influences the glycolytic rate at endurance exercises. High VLamax will trigger high lactate production during endurance exercises. This high lactate production lowers power at anaerobic threshold and the ability to recover from lactate accumulation.

  • Do you wonder what enables high performance at anaerobic threshold?
  • Why do different athletes require different fueling strategies and carbohydrate intake?
  • Why do different athletes encounter different abilities to utilize fatty acids as a fuel – even though those athletes might possess similar performance at anaerobic threshold
  • What allows certain athletes to change their race rhythm and attack their competition, with bouts of high power/energy output, again and again and again?

If these questions are of interest to you – assessing VLamax might – in most cases – be the answer to these questions.

"Higher maximum glycolytic power (higher VLamax) triggers higher lactate production rates at sub maximum / endurance exercises"

Lets look at two identical athletes. These athletes share identical body weight and body composition (muscle mass, fat mass, etc.), identical efficiency (energy needed to produce one Watt of power), identical buffering capacity, identical aerobic capacity (VO2max), but with two different VLamax. The high VLamax triggers higher lactate production rates at all sub maximum intensities. The athlete with the higher VLamax possess a higher lactate production rate, for any given power output, when compared to the athlete with the low VLamax.

For the athlete with a higher VLamax, this higher lactate production results in a lower intensity at which lactate production equals lactate clearance. This is the mechanism of how a high VLamax lowers anaerobic threshold- as shown below. 

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    Fig 1: Muscle Metabolism in steady state conditions are shown here. The influence of a high vs. a low VLamax on the lactate production, and anaerobic threshold is noted: all doted lines = high VLamax, all solid lines= low VLamax. Blue line shows the maximum possible lactate clearance rate by aerobic metabolism. The red line shows the lactate production. The yellow line shows the corresponding lactate concentration – for steady state conditions.  

Fig 1: Muscle Metabolism in steady state conditions are shown here. The influence of a high vs. a low VLamax on the lactate production, and anaerobic threshold is noted: all doted lines = high VLamax, all solid lines= low VLamax. Blue line shows the maximum possible lactate clearance rate by aerobic metabolism. The red line shows the lactate production. The yellow line shows the corresponding lactate concentration – for steady state conditions. 

"Higher lactate production rates come with the cost of higher carbohydrate utilization – therefore reducing fatty acid combustion."

Muscles produce lactate using carbohydrates. Therefore, a high lactate production rate consequently results in higher carbohydrate utilization rates. With a higher amount of energy coming from carbohydrates, as a consequence the fat combustion rate is lower. 

By Sebastian Weber,  Human Performance in Professional Sports

Do you want to know your VO2max and VLamx? Schedule a call with us.




INSCYD, the ultimate (and legal!) performance-enhancing software, is now being used by the pro cycling team BORA-Hansgrohe and the three-time World Champion Peter Sagan.
And this is great news, because we at Kinney Multisport have been using INSCYD since August 2017 and know the accuracy and the advantage of its technology, both for testing your performances and to plan your tailored training programs accordingly.

BORA will also use INSCYD for testing its athletes, monitoring their progress through the year and ultimately drive the training programs of each individual rider. 

And yes, it’s the same technology that we at Kinney Multisport are using to benchmark your progresses and plan your training regime. Pretty cool, eh?

Even Sagan’s coach – Patxi Villa – probably gave the best definition of what the software is capable of: "INSCYD gives you the full picture of the physical capacities of a human being," says Villa. "It gives the 360° view of what you’re facing if you don’t know a guy. If a new rider comes to the team and I don’t know him because he’s new and I have never worked with him in the past, with INSCYD I can already have a very precise view of which kind of rider he is. 
"What INSCYD does," adds Villa, "is a very good first screening, so that we know which way we’ll have to go with each rider according to what they need to do. It’s the perfect tool that tells you the way you have to go, right or left. And over the time it gives you an idea on how your work is actually going. If you keep using it you see exactly where you are and tracks if the rider is going where you want to."

And even the World Champion himself believes in the "power of numbers" although he still prefers to leave their analysis to the coaches."I like to train more following my feeling", says Peter Sagan, "but numbers can help to improve the performances and they give more important information to the coaches."
If you have never trained with INSCYD before, don’t get left behind and start training for real. Because you can’t improve what you can’t measure!
Check out the YouTube video below:




Jan Frodeno

Do you know how Jan Frodeno has prepared for his attempt at a 3rd consecutive World Championship? Here is his coach's recipe. Watch a short interview with Dan Lorang.

To learn more about the importance in measuring VLamax in endurance sport, please click here: VLamax - professional athlete's secret weapon.


dan lorang

“You really know what to work on if you know the VLamax”. 

- Dan Lorang - High Performance Coach of IRONMAN World Champion Jan Frodeno - 


Prof Dr Ferran Rodriguez - INEFC - University for Physical Education Barcelona/Spain - The Importance of VO2Max. 

INSCYD: Björn Geesmann, CEO of STAPS Europe's most successful coaching and testing company - on his favorite workout to increase VO2max